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Categoría: Temas Variados
Enviado por: Ensa05 11 junio 2011
Palabras: 2742 | Páginas: 11
bout a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.
* I studied French when I was a child.
* He played the violin.
USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations
The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to."
* She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
* He didn't like tomatoes before.
* Past Progressive
FORM [was/were + present participle]
* You were studying when she called.
* Were you studying when she called?
* You were not studying when she called.
USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past
Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.
* I was watching TV when she called.
* While we were having the picnic, it started to rain.
* A: What were you doing when you broke your leg?
B: I was snowboarding.
USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption
In USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.
* Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
* At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.
* Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.
USE 3 Parallel Actions
When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.
* I was studying while he was making dinner.
* While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television.
* Were you listening while he was talking?
USE 4 Atmosphere
In English, we often use a series of parallel actions to describe the atmosphere at a particular time in the past.
* When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service.
USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"
The Past Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the past. The concept is very similar to the expression "used to" but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."
* She was always coming to class late.
* He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone.
* Present Perfect
You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.
Change Over Time
We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.
* You have grown since the last time I saw you.
* The government has become more interested in arts education.
We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.
* Man has walked on the Moon.
* Our son has learned how to read
An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting
We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.
* James has not finished his homework yet.
* Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
Multiple Actions at Different Times
We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.
* The army has attacked that city five times.
* I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
FORM: [has/have + past participle]
* You have seen that movie many times.
* Have you seen that movie many times?
USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now
We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.
* I have seen that movie twenty times.
* I think I have met him once before.
* Present Perfect Progressive
FORM: [has/have + been + present participle]
* You have been waiting here for two hours.
* Have you been waiting here for two hours?
USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now
We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.
* They have been talking for the last hour.
* She has been working at that company for three years.
* What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes? .
USE 2 Recently, Lately
You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning.
* Recently, I have been feeling really tired.
* She has been watching too much television lately.
* Past Perfect
FORM: [had + past participle]
* You had studied English before you moved to New York.
* Had you studied English before you moved to New York?
USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past
The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.
* I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
* I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
* Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
* Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)
With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.
* We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.
* By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
* They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.
Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.
If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.
* She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
* She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.
* She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct
* She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct
* Past Perfect Continuous
FORM [had been + present participle]
* You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived.
* Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived?
USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Past
We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. "For five minutes" and "for two weeks" are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past.
* They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived.
* She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business.
* How long had you been waiting to get on the bus?
USE 2 Cause of Something in the Past
Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to show cause and effect.
* Jason was tired because he had been jogging.
* Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.
REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs
It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Past Perfect.
* The motorcycle had been belonging to George for years before Tina bought it. Not Correct
* The motorcycle had belonged to George for years before Tina bought it. Correct