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Enviado por Helen2121 • 1 de Noviembre de 2012 • 1.501 Palabras (7 Páginas) • 192 Visitas
There are many definitions in the literature regarding the concept of environmental impact. Some authors define as spatial and temporal changes of an environmental parameter as result of the interaction of a human in particular. Other impacts defined as negative disturbances or beneficial nature, occurring in the environment as result of human activities. In both cases it should be clarity on the threshold of acceptability regarding environmental damage and the elements of environment to be protected (Espinoza, 2006). Techniques have been developed that allow multiple methodologies to assess environmental impacts, which have evolved rapidly in recent decades. These techniques are to develop approaches to the identification, prediction and evaluation of the environmental impacts of a project, but before testing you should describe the characteristics that identify these.
Inside the main defining characteristic is its impact character. The positive impacts are those that represent an environmental benefit, while negatives are those that cause harm or damage to the components and attributes of the environment (Evans, 2006). Within this category are the impacts that are extensively documented, identified and listed within a policy instrument. For this reason these impacts have preset measures for prevention and mitigation; however this does not mean that such impacts are not negative. For its cause-effect impacts are identified as primary or secondary. The first are those that cause the action effects and generally occur at the same time and in the same place of it, while the second are those indirect or induced changes in the environment due to a primary effect. Secondary impacts include all potential effects that may occur in the future or in different places as a result of the implementation of an action (Evans, 2006).
Another important feature of the environmental impacts is its persistence. This criterion is used to classify permanent impacts (assumes an alteration agreement), and in time, that is, those who remain a certain time and stop when the activity causing disappears (Gomez-Orea, 2002). According to Evans (2006), the reversibility is a criterion that is used to identify the effects of impacts on environmental attributes can be reversed. The author considers irretrievable impact when the medium is altered, it is impossible to recover. Moreover irreversible impact is one that involves the impossibility or extreme difficulty returning by natural means to the original, while a reversible impact is one in which the alteration can be assimilated by the environment due to the operation of natural processes. Finally the author considers a fleeting impact when media recovery is immediately after the cessation of the activity.
For its size impacts can be identified as timely, when his action produces a highly localized alteration, partial noticeable when an incidence in the study area, end when detected in much of the area concerned and when it manifests Total widely in considered the whole environment (Evans, 2006). Pastakia in 1998 defines the importance of an impact in terms of environmental spatial edges or interests which affects humans, while the magnitude of the impact is the measure of the cost or benefit that causes either the impact on environmental conditions or human.
This same author identifies impacts as when the cumulative effect thereof is amplified by the step of time or synergistic effects associated with other activities. This concept is widely discussed by Carter and Kamath in 1995 which propose different types of cumulative impacts and perform a comprehensive analysis of the poor consideration of such impacts in environmental impact assessments. The authors review various methodologies in order to highlight its inappropriate or lacking identifying cumulative impacts despite its environmental significance. Once impacts have been identified based on their characteristics a number of techniques exist to evaluate them. According to Gómez-Orea (2002), one of the most used techniques is the matrices. These consist of double-entry tables on which intersect actions of project and relevant environmental factors. The author believes that this technique can present large volumes of information in a clear and simple format that combines aspects of development of project and environmental factors in a single framework, summarizing their interactions in terms of potential impacts on the environment. Arrays can characterize, represent and make a first assessment of the impacts identified, however to identify the second-and third-degree one must resort to making successive matrices.
Among the methods to present and analyze the relationships successive chains are networks. This technique is less used in identifying impacts arrays yet better reflects the chain of events and interactions. In any case the network technology and the matrix should be considered complementary
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