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Enviado por MarianaDominguez • 5 de Febrero de 2012 • 1.796 Palabras (8 Páginas) • 616 Visitas
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION.
The industrial revolution, as L.A. Clarkson says, is the great event in economic history. Although the industrial revolution emerged in Great Britain ,it affected the whole world “indeed the world can be divided into two groups; those who have experienced industrialization and those who are still striving to do so” we can say that according with Clarkson the revolution made the evident division between rich countries and poor countries that we can see today.
Since the point of view of Clarkson and Kreis, the industrial revolution was not just a change in industrial production or technological advances, but a change in 'the whole society and the standard of living’ Kreis is more concrete saying that “English, European and American society down to its very roots “ Kreis also points out that everybody in the society was affected by the industrial revolution : “Everyone was touched in one way or another -- peasant and noble, parent and child, artisan and captain of industry”. Asa Brigs goes further saying that the impact of the industrial revolution on the way people lived, thought and felt was “greater than that of most political revolutions…” he refers for example the French revolution or the revolution for independence, that although they aimed what they looked for, the effect and the consequences weren´t so important as those of the industrial revolution.
With these different perceptions about the industrial revolution we can be aware of the tremendous change the people of that time experienced and that the word revolution is the best word to define the new way of living and work in the eighteenth century and the next centuries; it was so important the change and the new technological methods appeared then that today a lot of factories use this methods in their production.
The industrial revolution made that the rudimentary methods in work used since roman´s times and very little changed during the medieval changes such as the Human and animal strength, “ were replaced, or supplemented, by machines and inanimate power.”Briggs says.
Clarkson defends the starting point of the modern technique of production with the mechanization of the cotton industry, that we call the factory system. But since the point of view of Asa Brigs “mechanization was not triumphant until the middle if the nineteenth century “so maybe we should question if the industrial revolution was so fast as we suppose. As Kreis says, not in all the areas of the country the industrial revolution speeded at the same time, because there were limited sources of power, industrial development during the early 1700s was initially slow.
Briggs also suggest us the importance of luck and not predetermination in the new technical advances “…. owed little directly to science and much to empirical efforts”. So the industrial revolution was also an event occurred by chance and not planned.
But we have to bear in mind the importance in the adaptation of new methods of farming and new types of vegetables and grains, Kreis tells us about the English farmers and the treat of farming as a science; their interest increase the production and quality of the product
The English farmers have been the most productive ones of the century and with new innovations they got greater harvest and the prices of food fell. They have a good labor method and consciousness about production, so with the new improvements, they just made more products in less work and time.
Clarkson also defends the innovator spirit of the British entrepreneurs, he considers their role as vital, “they”, he says, “were responsible for applying new techniques to production, producing new goods for new markets and creating new forms of organization”. This ‘English spirit’ it also present in the knowledge of Kreis, when he says “ English entrepreneurs had a much wider scope of activities than did their Continental counterparts at the same time”, we can take this issue into account to understand that Great Britain was the “Firs Industrial Nation” as Kreis refers before, but no other countries.
Brigs apart of this innovator spirit, and the new machines invented we mentioned before, thinks in the good trade connections overseas, the large number of middle-aged men, the previous rural factories, and the high demand of basic products. Kreis adds another factor made possible the industrial revolution, the fact that “England had an effective central bank and well-developed credit market”.
¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬Doctor Matthew White describe us the British industries in the early 18th century,” they were generally small scale and relatively unsophisticated. Most textile production was centered on small workshops or in the home of spinners, weavers and dyers: a literal cottage industry that involved thousands of individual manufacturers” he presents the previous environment where the industrial revolution born.He also said that the precarious conditions in the countryside and the poverty they suffered, made the people migrated to the cities, to find work and improvement their life.Also what they expected to find wasn´t similar with the reality.
Briggs introduces a new aspect that the rest of authors don´t refer to, the question about what were the consequences in the people with the industrial revolution? They were beneficiaries of the revolution or victims? He cites Arnold Toynbee when in the early 1950s argued that more had been destroyed than created through the smoke of the industrial revolution.
I´m going to use the information Dr. White gives about the industrial consequences and the different aspects of the process to talk about little aspects of the industrialization.
The rise of the cities increases since 1700 till 1800, five million of people changed
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