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Enviado por wendyrodmol • 27 de Septiembre de 2012 • 2.529 Palabras (11 Páginas) • 202 Visitas
Sewage and Wastewater (aguas residuals )
Domestic households(hogares), industrial and agricultural practices produce wastewater that can cause pollution of many lakes and rivers.
• Sewage is the term used for wastewater that often contains feces(fisis), urine and laundry waste (residuos).
• There are billions of people on Earth, so treating sewage is a big priority.
• Sewage disposal (eliminacion de aguas residuals)is a major problem in developing countries as many people in these areas don’t have access to sanitary conditions and clean water.
• Untreated sewage water in such areas can contaminate the environment and cause diseases such as diarrhea.
• Sewage in developed countries is carried away from the home quickly and hygienically through sewage pipes. (a traves de tuberias de aguas residuales)
• Sewage is treated in water treatment plants and the waste is often disposed into the sea.
• Sewage is mainly biodegradable and most of it is broken down in the environment (se descompone en el medio ambiente).
• In developed countries, sewage often causes problems when people flush chemical and pharmaceutical substances down the toilet. When people are ill, sewage often carries harmful viruses and bacteria into the environment causing health problems.
Marine dumping (vertidos marinos)
Dumping of litter in the sea can cause huge problems. Litter items such as 6-pack ring packaging can get caught in marine animals and may result in death. Different items take different lengths of time (periodos de tiempos) to degrade in water:
• Cardboard – Takes 2 weeks to degrade.
• Newspaper – Takes 6 weeks to degrade.
• Photodegradable packaging – Takes 6 weeks to degrade.
• Foam – Takes 50 years to degrade.
• Styrofoam – Takes 80 years to degrade.
• Aluminum – Takes 200 years to degrade.
• Plastic packaging – Takes 400 years to degrade.
• Glass – It takes so long to degrade that we don’t know the exact time.
Industrial water and water pollution
Industry is a huge source of water pollution, it produces pollutants (contaminantes) that are extremely harmful (prejudicial) to people and the environment.
• Many industrial facilities use freshwater to carry away waste from the plant and into rivers, lakes and oceans.
• Pollutants from industrial sources include:
o Asbestos – This pollutant is a serious health hazard and carcinogenic. Asbestos fibres can be inhaled and cause illnesses such as asbestosis, mesothelioma, lung cancer, intestinal cancer and liver cancer.
o Lead – This is a metallic element and can cause health and environmental problems. It is a non-biodegradable substance so is hard to clean up once the environment is contaminated. Lead is harmful to the health of many animals, including humans, as it can inhibit the action of bodily enzymes.
o Mercury – This is a metallic element and can cause health and environmental problems. It is a non-biodegradable substance so is hard to clean up once the environment is contaminated. Mercury is also harmful to animal health as it can cause illness through mercury poisoning.
o Nitrates – The increased use of fertilizers means that nitrates are more often being washed from the soil and into rivers and lakes. This can cause eutrophication, which can be very problematic to marine environments.
o Phosphates - The increased use of fertilizers means that phosphates are more often being washed from the soil and into rivers and lakes. This can cause eutrophication, which can be very problematic to marine environments.
o Sulphur – This is a non-metallic substance that is harmful for marine life.
o Oils – Oil does not dissolve in water, instead it forms a thick layer on the water surface. This can stop marine plants receiving enough light for photosynthesis. It is also harmful for fish and marine birds.
o Petrochemicals – This is formed from gas or petrol and can be toxic to marine life.
Nuclear waste – how it is produced
Nuclear waste is produced from industrial, medical and scientific processes that use radioactive material. Nuclear waste can have detrimental(prejudicial) effects on marine habitats. Nuclear waste comes from a number of sources:
• Operations conducted by nuclear power stations produce radioactive waste. Nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants in northern Europe are the biggest sources of man-made nuclear waste in the surrounding
ocean. Radioactive traces from these plants have been found as far away as Greenland (lejanos como en groelandia).
• Mining and refining(la mineria y el refinado) of uranium and thorium (torio)are also causes of marine nuclear waste.
• Waste is also produced in the nuclear fuel cycle which is used in many industrial, medical and scientific processes.
Oceans are polluted by oil on a daily basis from oil spills (derrames), routine shipping, run-offs and dumping (escurrimientos and dumping).
• Oil spills make up about 12% of the oil that enters the ocean. The rest come from shipping travel, drains(desagues) and dumping.
• An oil spill from a tanker is a severe problem because there is such a huge quantity of oil being spilt into one place.
• Oil spills cause a very localised problem but can be catastrophic to local marine wildlife such as fish, birds and sea otters.
• Oil cannot dissolve in water and forms a thick sludge (UN FANGO ESPESO) in the water. This suffocates fish, gets caught in the feathers of marine birds stopping them from flying and blocks light from photosynthetic aquatic plants.
Underground storage leakages (fugas de almacenamiento subterraneo)
A tank or piping network(una red tanque
(2012, 09). Causas De La Contaminacion Del Agua. ClubEnsayos.com. Recuperado 09, 2012, de https://www.clubensayos.com/Temas-Variados/Causas-De-La-Contaminacion-Del-Agua/315492.html
"Causas De La Contaminacion Del Agua" ClubEnsayos.com. 09 2012. 2012. 09 2012 <https://www.clubensayos.com/Temas-Variados/Causas-De-La-Contaminacion-Del-Agua/315492.html>.
"Causas De La Contaminacion Del Agua." ClubEnsayos.com. ClubEnsayos.com, 09 2012. Web. 09 2012. <https://www.clubensayos.com/Temas-Variados/Causas-De-La-Contaminacion-Del-Agua/315492.html>.
"Causas De La Contaminacion Del Agua." ClubEnsayos.com. 09, 2012. consultado el 09, 2012. https://www.clubensayos.com/Temas-Variados/Causas-De-La-Contaminacion-Del-Agua/315492.html.