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Enviado por ilpgc • 26 de Diciembre de 2012 • 551 Palabras (3 Páginas) • 213 Visitas
THEORY AND REALITY, 1919-89
International institutions only begun to command substantial international
attention following the establishment of the United Nations in 1945.
After 1945, even the most powerful states came to rely increasingly on
The number of inter-governmental organisations increased dramatically, from
about 30 in 1910 to 70 in 1940 to more than 1,000 by 1981.
Following the exchange rate and oil crises of the early 1970s, policymakers
realised that global issues required systematic policy coordination and that such
coordination required institutions.
Scientists began to redefine the study of international institutions, broadening it to
include what that they called international regimes.
In the 1980s, research focused on the conditions under which countries cooperate.
Scholars adopted realism, and accepted that state power and competing interests
were key factors in world politics, but at the same time drawing new conclusions
about the influence of institutions.
Institutions allow states to cooperate in mutually beneficial ways be reducing the
costs of making and enforcing agreements. Powerful states also have an interest in
following the rules of well-established institutions, since conformity to rules
makes the behaviour of other states more predictable.
By reducing uncertainty and the costs of making and enforcing agreements,
international institutions help states achieve collective gains.
YESTERDAY’S CONTROVERSIES: 1989-95
Institutionalism was not without its critics, who focused their attacks on three
Firstly, they claimed international institutions are fundamentally insignificant
since states wield the only real power in world politics. Keohane believes this
argument was overstated, he says whilst great powers exercise enormous
influence, the policies that emerge from these institutions are different from what
would have been adopted unilaterally.
The second counterargument focused on anarchy and the absence of a world
government or effective international legal system to which victims of injustice
can appeal. As a result, states prefer relative gains to absolute gains. Keohane
believes states can
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