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Activity: Study Guide for 2nd Partial

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Matter and Sustainability

Activity: Study Guide for 2nd Partial

Objective: The student will prepare a document that will serve her/him as a study guide for the conceptual part of the 2nd partial of Matter and Sustainability, this guide will be delivered on Monday, April the 2nd during class for a chance to win 1/2 of a Participation Bonus for the partial.

Students can use the following table as a guide and are free to use handwriting, draw or any suitable artistic tools to make the guide clear and attractive. Sources of information include the class slides and additional research information which should be correctly referenced.

Isomers

Concept:

Molecules with the same molecular formula but different arrangement of atoms.

Types:

Chain isomers:

  • Same formula.
  • Components of the carbon skeleton are rearranged to form different structures.

Position isomers:

  • Same formula.
  • Substituent changes position.

Functional isomers:

  • Same formula.
  • Different functional group.
  • Different arrangement of Carbon.

Geometric isomers:

  • Type of stereo isomers
  • Have the same atoms but different spatial orientation.
  • 2 carbons that form a double bond.
  • Trans and Cis

Examples (at least one example for each type of isomer):

Chain isomers:

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3

       

              CH3

                |

CH3-CH-CH3

Position isomers:[pic 1]

[pic 2]

Functional isomers:

[pic 3]

[pic 4]

Geometric Isomers:

[pic 5]

[pic 6]

Physical properties:

How does isomerism affect the boiling point?

Isomers with the biggest number of branches have the lowest melting points, and the ones with fewer branches have the highest melting points.

BECAUSE

  • Boiling point is determined by the superficial area the molecule occupies.
  • Attractive forces between neighbor molecules (Van der Waals forces).

Functional groups

Concept:

Atom, bond or group of atoms that provide a particular set of chemical and physical properties.

Organic compounds are classified into families given the functional group they contain.

Types (definition and general formula of each functional group).

Functional groups:

Alcohol: organic molecules that contain 1 or more OH functional groups attached to a hydrocarbon chain.

[pic 7]

Ketones: carbonyl group is bonded to 2 R groups.

[pic 8]

Aldehydes: Carbonyl carbon  is bonded to a Hydrogen and a R-alkyl group. Except for formal dehyde, that is bonded to 2 H.

[pic 9]

Ethers:  Compounds that contain an oxygen atom attached to 2 alkyl (R).  groups.

[pic 10]

Esters: Are the product of the chemical reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol molecule. (COO)

[pic 11]

Carboxylic acids: Contain a carboxyl group and a hydroxyl group connected to each other. (COOH)

[pic 12]

Amines: Nitrogen containing organic compounds with one ion pair and 3 single bonds to R groups of H.

[pic 13]

 

Amides: Nitrogen-containing organic compounds with the nitrogen bond to a carbonyl carbon.

[pic 14]

Aromatic compounds: Benzene containing compounds often have fragrant odors the family of benzene containing compounds.

[pic 15]

Examples (at least three examples of each functional group with names and semi-condenses formulas): 

In the back

Common uses (you will have to do research about at least two common uses for each functional group; I provided some examples in class like the use of alcohols in beverages or the presence of esters in fruits).  

Alcohol:

  • To eliminate bacteria.
  • It is used as fuel.

Ketones:

  • Makes acetone.
  • Treats acne.

Aldehydes:

  • Resin production.
  • Makes oxo alcohols, which help make detergents.

Ethers:

  • One of the first anesthetics used in surgery.
  • It is used as an ilicit drug.

Esters:

  • Solvents for strong substances.
  • Help making perfume and cosmetics.

Carboxylic Acid:

  • Food industry.
  • Soap production.

Amines:

  • Dyeing industries.
  • Gas treatment.

Amides:

  • Strong base in organic chemistry.
  • Drying of ammonia

Aromatic compounds:

  • Solvent for grease-based compounds.
  • Production of paint thinners.

Biomolecules

Concept of Biomolecule

Concept of monomer and polymer (you could complement what I explained in class by researching about the concept of monomer).

Monomer:  a molecule of any of a class of compounds, mostly organic, that can react with other molecules to form very large molecules, or polymers. The essential feature of a monomer is polyfunctionality, the capacity to form chemical bonds to at least two other monomer molecules.

Polymer: natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules, called macromolecules that are multiples of simpler chemical units called monomers. Polymers make up many of the materials in living organisms, including, for example, proteins, cellulose, and nucleic acids.

Carbohydrates

Concept:

They are the most abundant compounds in nature, which are also known as sugars, and contain C, O, and H.

Classification of carbohydrates:

  1. Monosaccharides: have only 1 monomer.
  2. Disaccharides: have 2 monomers.
  3. Polysaccharides: have 2 or more monomers.

Examples:

  1. glucose, mannose, galactose, ribose.
  2. Sucrose, maltose.
  3. starch, cellulose, glycogen

Role of carbohydrates in living organisms.

Provides energy to the organisms.

Lipids

Concept: insoluble molecules (in water) that can only be solved in non-polar compounds.

Classification of lipids:

  1. Fatty acids: Long-chained with hydrocarbon carboxylic acids.

  1. Waxes: esters that have very long hydrocarbon chains.

  1. Eicosanoids: hormone molecules that can cause pain, inflammation, fever etc.
  1. Triglycerides: are triesters of glycerol.
  1. Steroids: Are compounds which contain the steroid nucleus: three cyclohexane rings and one cyclopentane group.
  1. Phospholipids: Are similar in structure to triacylglycerols

Examples (for each type of lipids):

  1. Lauric Acid, found in coconut oil.
  2. Carnauba wax, beeswax.
  3. Arachidonic acid.
  4. Fats and oils.
  5. Poison of a snake.
  6. Cholesterol,which is a component of cellular membranes, (myelin sheath and brain tissue).

Role of lipids in living organisms.

Provide energy, insulation, cellular communication and protection.

...

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