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The monarchy of the Kingdom of England

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The monarchy of the Kingdom of England

began with Alfred the Great and ended with Queen Anne, who became Queen of Great Britain when Englandmerged with Scotland to form a union in 1707. For monarchs after Queen Anne, see List of British monarchs.

Arguments are made for a few different kings deemed to control enough of the ancient kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons to be deemed the first King of England. For example Offa, king of Mercia, and Egbert, king of Wessex, are sometimes described as kings of England by popular writers, but not by all historians. In the late eighth century Offa achieved a dominance over southern England which did not survive his death in 796. In 829 Egbert conquered Mercia, but he soon lost control of it. By the late ninth century Wessex was the dominant Anglo-Saxon kingdom. Its king, Alfred the Great, was overlord of western Mercia and used the title King of the Angles and Saxons (and starts the list below), but he never ruled eastern and northern England, which was then the Danelaw. His son Edward the Elder conquered the eastern Danelaw, but Edward's son Æthelstan became the first king to rule the whole of England when he conquered Northumbria in 927, and he is regarded by some modern historians as the first king of England.[1][2]

The Principality of Wales was incorporated into the Kingdom of England under the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284, and in 1301King Edward I invested his eldest son, the future King Edward II, as Prince of Wales. Since that time, with the exception ofKing Edward III, the eldest sons of all English monarchs have borne this title. After the death of Queen Elizabeth I without issue, in 1603, the crowns of England and Scotland were joined in personal union under King James VI of Scotland, who became James I of England. By royal proclamation, James titled himself "King of Great Britain", but no such kingdom was created until 1707, when England underwent legislative union with Scotland to form the new Kingdom of Great Britain, during the reign of Queen Anne.[3]



• 1 House of Wessex

• 2 House of Denmark

• 3 House of Wessex (restored, first time)

• 4 House of Denmark (restored)

• 5 House of Wessex (restored, second time)

• 6 House of Normandy

• 7 House of Blois

• 8 House of Anjou

• 9 House of Plantagenet

o 9.1 House of Lancaster

o 9.2 House of York

o 9.3 House of Lancaster (restored)

o 9.4 House of York (restored)

• 10 House of Tudor

• 11 House of Stuart

o 11.1 Commonwealth

o 11.2 House of Stuart (restored)

• 12 Acts of Union

• 13 Timeline of English Monarchs

• 14 Titles

• 15 See also

• 16 Notes

• 17 External links

House of Wessex[edit]

For earlier monarchs of Wessex, see List of monarchs of Wessex.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death

Alfred the Great

(Ælfrēd; Ælfrǣd)



Son of Æthelwulf (king of Wessex) and Osburh



five children 26 October 899

Aged about 50

Edward the Elder

Eadweard cyning

26 October 899–924 c. 874–877

Son of Alfred andEalhswith

(1) Ecgwynn

two children

(2) Ælfflæd

eight children

(3) Eadgifu

four children 17 July 924

Aged about 46–50


Disputed claimant

There is some evidence that Ælfweard of Wessex may have been king for four weeks in 924, between his father Edward the Elder and his brother Athelstan, although he was not crowned.[5] However this is not accepted by all historians. Also it is unclear whether Ælfweard was declared king of the whole kingdom or of Wessex only: there is evidence that when Edward died, Ælfweard was declared king in Wessex and Æthelstan in Mercia.[6]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death




c. 901[8]

Son of Edward the Elder and Ælfflæd[8]


No children 3 August 924[6]

Aged about 23

Buried at Winchester[9]


Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death




King of the Anglo-Saxons from 927 895

Son of Edward the Elder and Ecgwynn


27 October 939

Aged about 44[10]

Edmund I


28 October


c. 921


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