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Food safety risk analysis (FAO/WHO) and chemical risk assessment

Enviado por   •  31 de Julio de 2023  •  Apuntes  •  916 Palabras (4 Páginas)  •  31 Visitas

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Food safety risk analysis (FAO/WHO) and chemical risk assessment (IPCS)

General components of risk analysis:

Before the new aspect the three element of risk analysis were equally important (Figure 1). However, the risk communication became more and more important in the last years. The risk assessment and risk management cannot function without risk communication. Because of this we use a new approach (Figure 2) in the risk analysis.

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Risk communication means the interactive exchange of information and opinions throughout the risk analysis process as regards hazards and risks, risk-related factors and risk perceptions, among risk assessors, risk managers, consumers, feed and food businesses, the academic community and other interested parties, including the explanation of risk assessment findings and the basis of risk management decisions.

Risk management means the process, distinct from risk assessment, of weighing policy alternatives in consultation with interested parties, considering risk assessment and other legitimate factors, and, if need be, selecting appropriate prevention and control options.

Risk assessment means a scientifically based process consisting of four steps:

        - hazard identification,

        - hazard characterisation,

        - exposure assessment

        - risk characterisation

Food safety risk analysis (FAO/WHO)

Generic framework for risk management

[pic 9]

Preliminary risk management activities:

  1. Identify food safety issue: This is the task of risk managers. Safety issues may be identified based on national and international examines, food monitoring programmes, environmental monitoring, clinical and toxicological studies, laboratory tests, human disease surveillance and food-borne disease outbreak investigations. Risk managers can be academic or scientific experts, food industry, consumers and special interest groups.
  2. Develop risk profile: Generally, it is carried out by risk assessors. The main aims of the risk profile are: determination of necessity of other scientific information, identification of possible risk management options and the risk profile can be the case of the risk assessment and quantitative ranking of food safety problems.
  3. Establish goals of risk management: general goals of risk management can be: specific regulatory standards or other risk management measures, ranking of risk (associated with food-hazard combinations) and analysis of economic cost and benefit of different risk management methods.
  4. Decide on need for risk assessment: It is influenced by many factors, e.g. available sources or time, answers to similar issues and available scientific information.
  5. Establish risk assessment policy: It can be influenced by scientific information and results. It required close cooperation among the risk assessors and risk managers.
  6. Commission risk assessment (if necessary): The character of risk assessment can be influenced by many factors (e.g. cost, time, type of hazard, etc.). For the risk assessment the collection of assessment group is very important. Functional separation (risk assessors and risk managers) should apply mainly in developed countries. International risk assessments can be used. The risk managers should ensure the corresponding expertise, the clear communication, the resources, the realistic timetable and they have to maintain the functional separation.
  7. Consider results of risk assessment: The risk assessment should be clearly and fully answer.
  8. Rank risks (if necessary): Risk ranking can be influenced by many factors, e.g. economic factors (coast), real level of risk, public and political pressure.

Identification and selection of risk management option:

  1. Identify possible options: Farm to folk approach is very important. This is the task of risk managers but other member can be assist in this step (e.g. food business operators). Risk managers should take into account the goal(s) and the output(s) of risk assessments.
  2. Evaluate options: It may be simple or difficult. The most critical element of this step is combined implementation of risk diminution and consumer protection. Unfortunately, there are not rules to the selection of best option. The cost-benefit analysis and the consideration of ethical factors are very important.
  3. Select preferred option(s):  Different approaches and decision-making framework can be used, e.g. ALARA approach, threshold approach, benefit-cost approach, precautionary approach, etc.

Implementation of risk management decision:

The members of this step can be the government officials, food industries, consumers, etc. The type of implementation may vary based on the food safety issue, specific circumstances or parties involved.

Monitoring and review:

Monitoring and review are essentials. The review of decision is indispensable in case of (e.g.) new scientific results, new technologies, etc.  


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